Education and Stratification


  • The term education is derived from the Latin word e-ducere, which means “to lead out.”
  • We educate and train humans as well as animals.
  • “the process of receiving or imparting systematic instruction, particularly in schools or school-like institutions”
  • “The act or process of educating or being educated.”

Social Stratification:-

  • People in every society are classified into high and low ranks. The distribution of people in a society into groups based on their status is known as social stratification.
  • This distribution may be based on occupation, caste, education, income sources, prestige, and political power.
  • People obtain these sources and join a class.
  • As a result, the entire society is stratified into a few classes, generally high, middle, and low.


Dahrendrof: “stratification always a rank order in term of prestige and not esteem i.e, a rank order of position (worker, woman, resident of a certain area etc) which can be thought of independently of their individual members.”

Melvin M. Tuman: “Social stratification refers to arrangements of any social group or society into a hierarchy of positions that are unequal with regard to power, property, social evaluation and psychic gratification”.

Determinants of Social Stratification

Max Weber proposed a model for social stratification based on three factors: economic resources, prestige, and political power. The following factors determine social stratification in Pakistani society:

1. Economic Resources

  • The level of income derived from all resources is an important indicator of one’s social standing.
  • The size of rural landholdings is an important indicator.
  • Those who own and cultivate their own lands larger than subsistence level (12.5 acres) may be classified as upper class.
  • Those who own less than subsistence-level land and cultivate other people’s land may be classified as middle-class.
  • Tenants and members of the serving class, such as carpenters, blacksmiths, cobblers, barbers, and washer-men, may be classified as lower class.

2. Occupations

  • Occupation is also an important indicator of stratification in every society.
  • Owner landlords, owner cultivators, industrialists, big and wholesale businessmen, and high class government and semi-government officials are examples of high class professionals in Pakistani society.
  • Small-owned cultivators-cum-tenants, middle-class servicemen, and small partners in industrial units populate the middle class.
  • Skilled and semi-skilled labor are also included in this category, regardless of whether their income exceeds that of this class.
  • All menial workers, such as cobblers, carpenters, blacksmiths, peons, chowkidars, sweepers, and unskilled laborers, are included in the lower class.

3. Prestige

If a person has a high social status, he is regarded as the most respectful person. In our society, the social prestige of a community is determined by the following factors:

  • Nobility of the individual
  • harmless person for others
  • free from social evils like drinking, adultery, gambling, deceiving, robbery and fraud.
  • participate in welfare works within the community.
  • helping the needy, worried and those who come to seek his help
  • he is true to his words.

In Pakistani society, the individuals who own these traits enjoy high prestige in the community.

4. Power

Power is one of the important factor of social stratification in Pakistani society. individuals attain more power are given more respect in society. In Pakistani society, one can gain political power by adopting the following characteristic in behavior:

  • Outspoken
  • Free from social evils
  • well educated
  • well off his economic resources
  • generous in expenditure of public utility
  • takes interest in solving public problems
  • active, truthful and honest in dealing with people
  • Religious oriented

5. Caste

  • Caste is regarded as an important stratification factor in Pakistani society.
  • Some castes, such as Sayyed, Rajput, Pathan, and Mughal, are thought to be more affluent.
  • Some castes are generally classified as lower class, such as menials, laborers, and professional castes such as carpenters, barbers, and so on.
  • The remaining castes are positioned in the middle of the hierarchy.

6. Education

  • A social class is also determined by the level of education.
  • Illiterate people are from a lower social class.
  • Those who only received education up to high school may be classified as middle-class, while those who received college, university, and professional education may be classified as upper-class. In general, the standard of education confers status in our society.
  • Because education is a source of prestige

Role of education in Stratification

  • Education has a significant impact on social stratification within a community group.
  • Education is a human activity that has existed since the dawn of time.
  • Education is one of the most important factors in determining one’s social environment.
  • That is, education has the potential to improve one’s social standing. The higher a person’s education, the more respected he is in the community.
  • This phenomenon creates a layer of society that serves as a differentiator in a person’s vertically different position.
  • The process of distinguishing one’s position in society is known as social stratification.
  • Education is one of the factors that contribute to social initiation in society.
  •  Some students from private schools dismiss those from public schools as ‘lower class’ because they are financially and socially unstable for various reasons. This creates a barrier between students, resulting in bullying and teasing as a result of inequality or injustice.
  • Students from lower-income families have an unstable financial situation. And that they struggle to support school necessities, and that the family, including the children, will find alternative ways, such as having vocational jobs or part-time jobs, just to meet the school’s needs.
  • there are students who are not treated differently and are even respected, and peers understand their situation and are willing to be with them despite their indifferent class systems.


Related Topics, Sociology of Education

#Sociology of Education complete course # Sociology of Education past paper # Sociology of Education project #Computer Science all courses #University Past Paper #Programming language #Question paper #old paper #Introduction Sociology of Education #Nature and Scope of Education #Historical Background of Education #Characteristics of Education #Types of Education #Contemporary Education System #Education and Socialization #Education and Stratification #Education and Social Mobility #Functions of Education #Education and Democracy #Education for Leadership  #School as an Organization

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