Education and Socialization


  • The term education is derived from the Latin word e-ducere, which means “to lead out.”
  • We educate and train humans as well as animals.
  • “the process of receiving or imparting systematic instruction, particularly in schools or school-like institutions”
  • “The act or process of educating or being educated.”

Concept of Socialization:-

  • Ross defined socialization as the development of “we-feeling” in the ways and manners individuals behave in the society.
  • Bogardus has viewed socialization as the process whereby persons learn to behave dependably together on behalf of human welfare and by so doing experience social self control, social responsibility and balanced personality

Meaning of Socialization:-

  • The process by which individuals learn to behave in accordance with the social traditions and conventionality of their environment is referred to as socialization.
  • He is transformed from an animal to a human through socialization, and it is socialization that gives him/her a balanced personality.
  • The social aspect of a person’s personality is as important as the individual aspect.
  • Socialization teaches him/her to control himself/herself in the interests of others.

Early Socialization:-

  • Culture refers to the behavioral patterns that a society must instil in its new recruits.
  • The transmission of culture was an important part of education in a primitive society.
  • It was primarily concerned with how children receive what we call primary education in the home without ever attending a school.
  • When children reach the age of five or six, they have already received a great deal of educational care and nurturing from their parents. By this age, much of the culture has been passed down.
  • For a broader coverage of relevant items to be learned, the child’s early socialization should include the nuclear family, extended family, and school.

Agents of Socialization

  • Any society’s survival is inextricably linked to the degree of homogeneity among its members.
  • Socialization perpetuates and reinforces this homogeneity by instilling in children from infancy the essential similarities that collective life necessitates.
  • These vital life components are passed down through the family, school, mosque/church, peer group, market, mass media, and so on.

1. The Family

  • The family is one of many small face-to-face groups known as primary groups that are tasked with providing their offspring with a qualitative and decent way of life.
  • The family is expected to meet economic needs such as feeding, clothing, shelter, medical care, and so on.
  • It is also expected to pass down cultural values and norms to the next generation in order for them to fully integrate into society.
  • Because the family is the child’s first point of contact, it is the foundation of socialization.
  • In the family, basic social values, desirable character traits, and norms are first instilled.
  • The home helps to lay the groundwork for a child’s personality and character development.
  • An individual’s success or failure is determined by the type of social take-off acquired in the family setting.

2. The School

  • Another important socialization agent is school.
  • Following the child’s home, he is exposed to school, which also influences him.
  • It socializes the child, allows him to express his qualities, potentials, capabilities, instincts, drives, and motives, and aids in the development of his personality.
  • For the child, the teacher’s personality and character serve as a model that he strives to emulate, consciously molding his personality.
  • This is only true for teachers who are successful in instilling in their students an attachment to and love for themselves.
  • Every action, movement, and speech made by the teacher leaves an impression on the child’s mind.
  • Aside from the teacher, the child is influenced by his peers or groups at school.
  • These mates or groups play a significant role in determining the child’s status and role in society later in life.
  • During the educational process, the child’s personality develops as a result of the other personalities with whom he comes into contact.
  • The child is disciplined at school; he is aware that disobedience results in immediate punishment, but too strict a system of discipline limits the child’s mental growth and may even drive him into criminal activity.

3. The Peer Group

  • The peer group consists of the child’s own friends and equals who share similar motivations, motives, and interests.
  • The child’s social world has its own mode of interaction, values, and acceptable forms of behavior, many of which adults do not understand.
  • It is a world in which children have equal, and sometimes superior, status to adults.
  • Peer groups form early in a child’s life. These peer groups are relatively informal and transitory in the early years, adapting quickly to changing circumstances in the child’s situation.
  • Peer groups include play groups (siblings, neighbors’ children, schoolmates), cliques, and age mates.
  • Later on, however, they become more formally organized groups such as clubs, societies, fighting gangs, character-building organizations such as the Boys Scouts and Girls Guides, and so on.
  • Peer groups, in short, are social groups that influence the behaviour of their members.

4. Religion

  • Religion can be defined as man’s attempt to explain those aspects of his environment that he does not understand.
  • Except for the supernatural, what is the purpose of life? What happens to people after they pass away?
  • Religious beliefs in our society, as in many others, are based on the idea that God is the supernatural power responsible for the creation of life.
  • They believe that when God created the world, He had a purpose in mind, and that this purpose has been explained by the prophets who came into the world to tell people how they should behave in order for God’s purpose to be fulfilled.
  • As a result, religious beliefs influence certain types of behavior.
  • Religion is thus a way of life, not just something that believers can embrace or reject as their moods dictate. People who share the same religious beliefs will have similar attitudes and opinions, as well as behave similarly.
  • As a result, religious institutions aid in the socialization of their members.

5. Mass Media

  • The mass media, as a socialization agent, has its own set of technical characteristics.
  • There are two main types: “Print” and “Electronic.” Newspapers, magazines, periodicals, texts, billboards, and other forms of print are included in this category.
  • While electronics include radios, televisions, video cameras, projectors, and so on.
  • These serve as socialization channels.
  • There is one exception to this generalization: media are clearly in competition with one another for a limited amount of leisure time. Children use different media in different ways due to technical characteristics, and thus different types of messages are passed through mass media.

Role of Education in Socialization

  • The transmission of culture was an important part of education in a primitive society.
  • Following the child’s home, he is exposed to school, which also influences him.
  • Education socializes the child, allows him to express his hidden qualities, potentials, capabilities, instincts, drives, and motives, and aids in the development of his personality by providing a platform.
  • For the child, the teacher’s personality and character serve as a role model, they follow their teachers personality and mold their behavior accordingly.
  • A child is also learn from his fellow students in school. Peer group in school has much influence on the behavior of a child because they are on the same age.
  • A child learn a lot  for life and for the society during the educational practices.
  • they learn teamwork, cooperation, competition and leadership qualities through educational activities.
  • they become disciplined because of the strict rules and regulations of the school.

Related Topics, Sociology of Education

#Sociology of Education complete course # Sociology of Education past paper # Sociology of Education project #Computer Science all courses #University Past Paper #Programming language #Question paper #old paper #Introduction Sociology of Education #Nature and Scope of Education #Historical Background of Education #Characteristics of Education #Types of Education #Contemporary Education System #Education and Socialization #Education and Stratification #Education and Social Mobility #Functions of Education #Education and Democracy #Education for Leadership  #School as an Organization



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