Introduction To Ubunto Operating System
Introduction To Ubunto Operating System
Bash is the language that you will learn to love as much of everyday Ubuntu life is done/can be done using the Terminal. You will soon learn that most things can be done through both GUI (Graphical User Interface) and CLI (Command Line Interface), however some things are more easily achieved from one or the other. For example, changing file permissions of a folder and all its sub folders is more easily achieved using CLI instead GUI.
Ubuntu is an operating system that is developed by a worldwide community of programmers as well as by employees of Ubuntu’s commercial sponsor, Canonical. Ubuntu is based on the concept of free or open-source software, meaning that you do not pay any licensing fees for Ubuntu, and you can download, use, and share the operating system free of charge.
Ubuntu is “free software” a term which is often misunderstood to mean only free of cost. While Ubuntu is free of cost, the term “free software” more accurately refers to the freedom to run the program for any purpose, to study how the program works and modify it to your needs, to redistribute copies, and to improve the program and release your improvements to the public.
Being a Linux-based operating system, Ubuntu has a well-deserved reputation for stability and security. Historically, Linux has proven itself to be a workhorse server operating system, and this is where, up until now, it has been most widely used and best known.
Security updates and bug fixes for applications and the operating system are managed by Ubuntu, and users are notified about these updates through an icon in the taskbar, which they can click on to install.
Install and configure Ubuntu
There are many bash command to learn. The following is an abbreviated list of the most useful ones. To access bash, click on the search icon (a stylized Ubuntu logo) at the top of the launcher and then type ‘terminal’ in the search bar. You may wish to add the terminal to the launcher since you will be using it a lot
apropos == find a command apropos of
apt-get == install and manage software
cd == change directory
chmod == change file mode
chown == change file ownership
cp == copy a file
file == determine file type
find == find a file’s location (by name)
gzip == compress or expand files
less == read a file one screen at a time
ls == list directory contents
make == build an application using a MakeFile
man == read the manual for a command
mkdir == make a directory
mv == move a file
pwd == print working directory
rm == remove a file
sftp == secure file transfer protocol (connect to another computer)
ssh == secure shell hyper–terminal (connect to another computer)
sudo == use a pseudonym when executing a command
tar == tape archiver (the tape drive is optional)
wget == web getter
- Where is the bash program located on your system?
- Use the –version option to find out which version you are running?
- Which shell configuration files are read when you login to your system using the graphical user interface and then opening a terminal window?
- Are the following shells interactive shells? Are they login shells?
A shell opened by clicking on the background of your graphical desktop, selecting “Terminal” or such from a menu.
- A shell that you get after issuing the command ssh
- A shell that you get when logging in to the console in text
- A shell obtained by the command xterm&.
- A shell opened by the mysystem.sh script. A shell that you get on a remote host, for which you didn’t have to give the login and/or password because you use SSH and maybe SSH keys.
- Can you explain why bash does not exist when you type Ctrl+C on the command line?
- Display directory stack
- If it is not yet the case, set your prompt so that it displays your location in the file system hierarchy, for instance add this line to ~/.bashrc: export PS1=”\u@\h
- Display hashed commands for your current shell
- How many processes are currently running on your system? Use ps and wc, the first line of output of ps is not a process!
- How to display the system hostname? Only the name, nothing more!
- Write a script using your favorite editor. The script should display the path to your home directory and the terminal type that you are using. Additionally it shows all the services started up in run level 3 on your system. (hint: use HOME, TERM and ls /etc/rc3.d/S*)
- Add comments in your script.
- Add information for the users of your script.
- Change permissions on your script so that you can run without errors.
- Run the script in normal mode and in debug mode. It should run without errors.
- Make errors in your script: see what happens if you misspell commands, if you leave out the first line or put something unintelligible there, or if you misspell shell variable names or write them in lower case characters after they have been declared in capitals. Check what the debug comments say about this.
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