The people in every society have different ranks as high and low. This distribution of people of a society in groups on the basis of their status is called social stratification. This distribution may be on the basis of occupation, caste, education, sources of income, prestige and political power. The people attain these sources and get into a class. In this way, the whole society is divided into a few classes generally high, middle and low, called stratification.
DETERMINANTS OF SOCIAL STRATIFICATION
Max Weber gave a model of three elements for social stratification: Economic resources, prestige and political power. In Pakistani society, the following factors determine social stratification.
The level of income from all resources is an important indicator of one s place in society. The size of landholding in rural areas is an important measure. Those who tenets and those who belong to serving class like carpenter, blacksmith, cobbler, barber, washer man and others can be placed in lower class. In urban areas the big industrialists, whole sale and big businessmen, high class officials belonging to government and other agencies, high class technicians and other professionals like advocates, medical practitioners and other belongs to upper class.
Occupation is also an important indicator of stratification in every society. In Pakistani society the high-class professionals are owner’s landlords, owner cultivators, industrialists, big wholesale businessmen and high-class government and semi government officials. In middle class, come the small owned cultivators, middleclass servicemen and small partners in industrial units. The skilled and semi-skilled labour also come in this category; whether their income exceeds that of this class. In lower class all manual workers like cobblers, carpenters, blacksmith, washer man, peon, sweeper and unskilled labour etc.
If individual has high prestige in social life, he is regarded most respectful person. The social prestige in a community in our society depends upon the following factors.
Nobility of individual
Free from social evils (drinking, adultery, gambling, deceiving, robbery and fraud)
Participating generally in welfare works within the community (sharing in school, dispensary, Masjid, Madrassa, road and other projects of public welfare)
He is true to his words (it means he never goes back upon his promise) An individual in Pakistani society claiming these traits enjoys high prestige in the community. Here the prestige is attained by spending the economic resources in their social life,
Power is one of the important factors of social stratification in Pakistani society. Those who attain more power are given more respect in society.
Some casts are believed to high status like Sayyad, rajput, mughal and awan etc. And some are generally placed in lower class menials and laborers etc.
The illiterate persons belong to lower class. Those who receive professional education and get a suitable job are placed in middle class.
SOCIAL STRATIFICATION AND GENDER
Throughout most of recorded history and around the globe, women have taken a “back seat” to men. Generally speaking, men have had, and continue to have, more physical and social power and status than women, especially in the public arena. Men tend to be more aggressive and violent then women, so they fight wars.