History and Introduction to Plant Sciences (Lec 1 & 2)
Introduction, Objectives, History and Scope of Plant Sciences, branches of botany, applied botany, Introduction, objectives and strategies of plant improvement
|Lecture #||Topic covered Plants Sciences-II BBS 3|
|1-2||Introduction, Objectives, History and Scope of Plant Sciences, branches of botany, applied botany, Introduction, objectives and strategies of plant improvement|
|3-6||Plant Reproduction: Reproduction in crop plants- types of reproduction- sexual and asexual reproduction, meiosis, mitosis, male and female gametogenesis, fertilization, pollination-self and cross pollinated crops. variations in chromosome number, euploids, aneuploids, chromosome addition and substitution;|
|7-9||Transport in Plants: short distance movements, long distance movements. Factors affecting water movements in plants|
|10-12||Mineral nutrition: essential nutrients for plant growth, Role and deficiency symptoms of macronutrients. Ion uptake by cells, ion uptake by roots. Membrane transport process, Source-sink relationships|
|14-16||Photosynthesis: Introduction, photorespiration, Differences between C3 and C4 plants.|
|17||Products of photosynthesis, transport and storage of photo-assimilation|
|Phytoremediation: Definition, types, important terminologies.|
Plant Responses to Abiotic stress & Role of Tissue Culture
Biotic Stress (Host pathogen interaction) & Induced Biochemical Defenses
|27-29||Pant Microbe Interaction: Role of microbes in crop plant development, crosstalk between microorganisms and plants.|
|30||Introduction to Allelopathy and its role in weed management|
1.Introduction, Objectives, History, Early & Current trends in plant biology and Scope of Plant Sciences
2.Subdisciplines & applied disciplines of plant biology
3.Introduction, objectives and strategies of plant improvement
4.Challenges to face…
Early Plant Biology
Plant Biology originated as herbalism, the study and use of plants for their medicinal properties
Early Plant Biology work have been found in ancient literature dating back to before 1100 BC
During the 18th century, systems of plant identification were developed, where identified plants are placed into taxonomic group and heredity that originated with Gregor Mendel and Weismann. The work of Katherine Esau (1898–1997) on plant anatomy is the major foundation of modern botany.
Current Trends in Plant Biology
Plant Sciences has emerged drastically from basic plant biology to ecology.
Many sub-branches have evolved such as plant molecular studies to evolutionary statistics
Thus, this has improved the scope of the field opening up many challenges in the field. The recognition that it is increasingly difficult for specialists to keep up to date with the expanding volume of information getting updated.
SCOPE AND IMPORTANCE
LEARNING OBJECTIVE 2
- Early & Current trends in plant biology; Briefly describe the field of botany, and give short definitions of at least five subdisciplines of plant biology
- BOTANY The scientific study of plants; also called plant biology
- Plant molecular biology
–Structures and functions of important biological molecules (proteins, nucleic acids)
- Plant cell biology
–Structures, functions, and life processes of plant cells
- Plant physiology
–How plants function
(photosynthesis, mineral nutrition)
- Plant genetics
–Plant heredity and variation
Discuss the applied disciplines of plant science…………
Agriculture-the science, art, or practice of cultivating the soil, producing crops, and raising livestock and in varying degrees the preparation and marketing of the resulting products
Agronomy-crop and soil sciences. Agronomists make practical use of plant and soil sciences to increase the yield of field crops.
Biotechnology-using biological organisms to produce useful products. Plant biotechnology involves inserting desirable genes into plants and having those genes expressed.
Breeding-development of better types of plants. Breeding involves selecting and crossing plants with desirable traits such as disease resistance.
Economic Botany-plants with commercial importance. Economic botany includes the study of harmful and beneficial plants and plant products.
Forestry-forest management for the production of timber, and conservation.
Horticulture-the study of ornamental plants and fruit and vegetable crops.
Plant Pathology -study of diseases and changes which occur with the disease in plants. Plant pathologists are concerned with both the biological aspects of disease and with disease management, or control.
LEARNING OBJECTIVE 3
Introduction to Plant Improvement
- What is plant Improvement?
–Selection/ development of plants with enhanced performance than the existing genotype/ plants
- Early Plant improvement
–No scientific methodologies are involved, only on the basis of field performance
- Systematic Plant Improvement
–Improvement in heredity of crops and Production of new crop cultivars which are far better than the existing ones
This Systematic Plant Improvement is also referred to as
– is the art and science of improving the heredity of plants for the benefit of the mankind.
–The goal of Plant breeder is to change the heredity of plant in ways that will improve plant performance.
Basics of Plant Breeding Strategy
- Identify the morphological, physiological, pathological traits in a cultivated plant species that contribute to its adaptation, health productivity, and suitability for food, fiber or industrial products.
- Search out new genes that encode for desired traits in different strains of the cultivated species and their close relatives.
- Combine genes for the desired traits into an improved cultivar through traditional breeding or new biotechnological procedures.
- Performance assessment of the improved breeding lines in the local environment in comparison with present cultivars.
- Distribution of new cultivars that are superior to current cultivars.
Aims and Objectives of Plant Improvement
- Higher yield
- Better quality
- Shape, size, colour, nutrition, taste, Malting, milling, baking, (cereals) sugar contents, large, fine, strong fiber in cotton, flavor in fruits
- Resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses
- Crop duration early or late maturity as desired
- Growth habit: height, type etc.
- Winter hardiness
- Lodging resistance
- High fertilizer responsiveness
- Easier thresh ability
- Wider adaptability
- Mechanized harvesting
LEARNING OBJECTIVE 4
Challenges to face…
Stepping forward toward meeting the challenges facing the world:
- improved nutrition
- increased crop yield
- resistance to pests
- sustainable biofuels
- serious environmental problems, etc.,