Environment and human health past paper

Environment and human health past question paper


(a). Encircle the correct option. Each question carries equal marks. (10)

1. If a disease simultaneously affects persons of several countries or continents and aft them in numbers in clear excess of normalcy, the disease is said to be:

(a) endemic (b) epidemic (c) pandemic (d) zoonotic

2. The beginning of the subclinical period of disease is marked by

(a) exposure to the agent (b) first pathological changes (c) onset of symptoms (d) tim diagnosis

3. The clinical stage of disease begins with… (a) exposure to the agent (b) pathological changes (c) the patient’s first sympto (d) the time of diagnosis

4. Which of the following is a chemical barrier to infection?

(a) Intact skin (b) Respiratory cilia (c) Natural killer cells (d) Gastric acidity 5. Which cell regulates the immune response? (a) T lymphocytes (b) B lymphocytes

(c) macrophages

(d) NK cells

6. A particular infectious disease can display a broad scope of manifestations and severitie

This is known as the:

(a) incubation period (b) gradient of infection (c) endemic level of disease (d) stage of susceptibility

7. The pathogen most commonly involved in community-acquired pneumonia is (a) Gram-negative bacilli (b) Staphylococcus aureus (c) Fungi (d) Legionella

8. Which three parameters does the Reed-Frost Model use? (a) Time, place and person (b) Agent, host and environment infected, and immunes (d) Resistant, infect and immune

(e) Susceptibles

9. Which receptors are required for attachment of the HIV virion on to the target cell? (a) CD4, CD8 (b) CD4, CCR5 (c) CD4, CD28 (d) CD8, CCR5

10. Which component of the humoral immune system responds first to an antigen?

(b) IgG

(c) IgE

(d) IgA

11. The mode of transport of an infectious agent through the environment to a susceptible

host is called a:

(a) IgM

(b) vehicle

(c) reservoir

(d) vector

12. What is the most accurate description of an agreement of findings by two or more examiners?

(a) carrier

(b) Inter-examiner.

(e) Inter-preter

(d) Intra-rater

(a) Intra-examiner

13. The OHI-S Simplified Oral Hygiene Index measures what?

(a) Existing Plaque and Calculus on tooth surface (b) Thickness of Plaque on tooth surface (c) Presence of Plaque on tooth surface (d) Plaque and Debri on tooth surface

14. The period between exposure and first symptoms is the:

(c) stage of clinical disease

(a)stage of susceptibility (b) stage of disability

(d) subclinical stage of disease

15. Which of the following is a chemical cause of disease?

(a) bacteria (b) heat (c) trauma (d) nutritive excesses

16. Increases in the ability of a biologic agent to enter a host is called:

(a) Pathogenicity (b) virulence (c) toxicity (d) infectivity

17. Submicroscopic infectious agents that contain their own genetic material but incapable of multiplying outside of the host are: are

(a) protozoans

(b) bacteria

(c) viruses

(d) prions

18. Soluble proteins produced by B cells that neutralize invading pathogens are: (c) lymphokines

(a) macrophages

(b) antibodies

(d) vaccines

19. Hosts that harbor a specific infectious agent while manifesting no discernable signs or symptoms are called:

(a) vectors (b) portals (c) vehicles (d) carriers

20. The “epidemiologic

(a) Agent

(b) host

triad” includes all of the following except? (c) behavioral factors

(d) environment


Q2) Briefly answer the following questions? (10 Marks)

Qi) Enlist various components addressing environmental health concerns? Qii) Compare and contrast risk factors for communicable and non-communicable diseases?

Qiii) Write down main components of Innate and acquired Immunity that contribute to humoral

immunity and cell mediated immunity?

Qiv) What is pathology? Write/define scope of pathology? Classify pathology with two basic examination methods?

Qv) What is Immunology and Immune system? Enlist principal functions of immune system?


Q.3) Explain briefly about the ethical guidelines for environmental epidemiologists? Assuming that you agree that professionals should get involved, in the issues they study, what can you do with respect to each of the categories discussed in the section Role of Environmental Health Professional? Be as concrete as possible, with specific examples of actions that you might take. (10 Marks)

Q.4) Your health minister has been invited to attend a special cabinet meeting to discuss your country’s response to recent reports regarding climate change. He has been told that there are no major health impacts in your jurisdiction, therefore it is not necessary for him to prepare a detailed report. He has asked you if you think that he ought to attend. Formulate a memo offering his advice.

1. Discuss how global warming could affect health in your country. 2. What are the most serious global health concerns? Prioritize and justify your list.

3. Summarize the areas of greatest debate and state why these debates exist. 4. What are the obstacles to overcome in addressing global health problems?

5. What strategies exist to address these obstacles? (10 Marks)

Q.5) What are health indicators? Write their characteristics and uses? Classify mortality indictors of health with example of each? (05 Marks)

Q.6) What are the major health impacts of climate extremes? Map the links between climate change and health? Describe in details, potential health impacts from environmental changes? (05 Marks)

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