History of Computer systems
First Laptop Computer
1986 IBM delivers the PC convertible, IBM’s first laptop computer and the first Intel-based computer with a 3.5-inch floppy disk drive.
Compact Disk (CD)
- 1986 First International Conference on CD-ROM technology is held in Seattle, hosted by Microsoft.
- Compact discs are seen as the storage medium of the future for computer users.
- IBM unveils new PS/2 line of computers, featuring a 20-MHz 80386 processor.
- IBM used Video Graphics Array (VGA) monitor offering 256 colors at 320 X 200 resolution, and 16 colors at 640 X 480.
- Macintosh II with Motorola 68030
- Intel releases 80486 chip
- World Wide Web created at CERN for use by scientific researchers
- Microsoft introduced Word for Windows
- Previously, Word for DOS had been the second-highest-selling word processing package behind WordPerfect.
The National Science Foundation Network (NSFNET) replaces ARPANET as the backbone of the Internet.
Motorola announces its 32-bit microprocessor, the 68040, incorporating 1.2 million transistors
1990 Microsoft Windows
Microsoft releases Windows 3.0, shipping one million copies in four months.
- Linus Torvalds releases the source code for Linux 0.01 (a clone of UNIX for the 80386 personal computer) on the Internet.
- Apple Computer launches the PowerBook series of battery powered portable computers.
- RISC based chips are used in Power PC microprocessors
- Internet becomes the world’s largest electronic mail network.
- Microsoft ships the Windows 3.1 operating environment, including improved memory management and TrueType fonts.
- IBM introduces its ThinkPad laptop computer.
- Microsoft ships the Windows NT operating system.
- IBM ships its first RISC-based RS/6000 workstation,
- featuring the PowerPC 601 chip developed jointly by Motorola, Apple, and IBM.
- Intel releases the Pentium Pro microprocessor.
- Motorola releases the PowerPC 604 chip, developed jointly with Apple and IBM.
- Microsoft releases its Windows 95 operating system
- Netscape Communications captures more than 80 % of the World Wide Web browser market,
- Going from a start-up company to a $2.9 billion company in one year.
- Sun Microsystems create the Java development language.
- Because it enables programmers to develop applications that will run on any platform,
- Power Computing ships the first-ever Macintosh clones, the Power 100 series with a PowerPC 601 processor.
- eBay, the premier online auction house, is formed.
- Intel announces the 200 MHz Pentium processor
- U.S. Robotics releases the PalmPilot, a personal digital assistant
- Microsoft adds Internet connection capability to its Windows 95 operating system.
- Sun Microsystems introduces the Sun Ultra workstation that includes a 64-bit processor.
- Intel announces MMX technology
- which increases the multimedia capabilities of a micro-processor. Also, Intel announces the Pentium II microprocessor. It has speeds of up to 333 MHz.
- Digital Video/Versatile Disc (DVD) technology is introduced.
- Microsoft releases the Windows 98 operating system
- It also offers improved Internet-related features, including a built-in copy of the Internet Explorer Web browser
- Apple Computer releases the colorful iMac, an all-in one system geared to a youthful market
- Intel unveils the Pentium III processor, which features 9.5 million transistors
- With its Athlon microprocessor, Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) finally releases a Pentium-class chip that outperforms the Pentium III processor
- Peter Merholz coins the term blog, a contraction of Web-log
- The Internet Assigned Number Agency begins assigning Internet Protocol addresses using the new IPv6 addressing structure
- Y2K issue
No major damage resulted from the “millennium date change
- Microsoft introduces Windows 2000 on February 17.
biggest commercial software project ever attempted involving 5,345 full-time participants
final product includes almost 30 million LOC
- Microsoft releases the Windows XP OS
XP version of Microsoft Office also is unveiled.
- Several versions of recordable DVD discs and drives produced
DVD-R, DVD+R, DVD-RAM
- Apple introduces OS X, a new OS for Macintosh computers
based on BSD (Berkley Software Distribution) Unix with a beautiful graphical interface
- Apple introduces the iPod
premier music player with a 5 GB internal hard disk that will store 1,000 CD-quality songs
2002 Open Office
- OpenOffice.org announces the release of OpenOffice.org 1.0,
A free, full-featured suite of productivity applications compatible with the file formats used by Microsoft Office and many other office suites.
An open-source alternative to expensive application suites
OpenOffice.org runs under Windows, Solaris, Linux, the Mac OS, and other operating systems.
- Microsoft launches its .NET strategy
New environment for development and running s/w applications featuring ease of use and web based services
- DVD writers begins to replace CD writers
Digital Video cameras are introduced
- Tablet PC is introduced as next generation mobile PC
- Intel ships Pentium 4 chip with Hyper Threading (HT) technology, 3.06GHz
- Microsoft launches MS Office 2003
More than 400 million people in 175 nations and 70 languages are using a version Office
- Latest OS include support for Wi-Fi (Wireless Fidelity) and Bluetooth standards
Use of wireless keyboards, mouse devices, home networks and wireless internet access points become common
- Apple opens an online music store iTunes
Offering more than 200,000 titles at $0.99 each
- Apple iTunes sold nearly 20 million songs
- USB Flash drives are produced
- Flat Panel LCD monitors
- Radio Frequency Identification(RFID) tags are introduced
- Smart Phones overtakes the PDA as the personal mobile device of choice.
- Apple Computer introduces iMac G5
Computer display device contains the system unit
- Apple releases the latest version of iPod Portable
- Microsoft introduces Visual studio 2005
- Microsoft releases the Xbox 360 game console
- Blogging and podcasting become mainstream
- Sony launches its PlayStation 3
- Google becomes the most used search engine capturing 54% of market share
- Intel introduces Core 2 Duo processor family
Contains 291 million transistors
- Apple begins selling Macintosh computers with Intel microprocessors
- IBM produces the fastest supercomputer called Blue Gene/L
Perform 28 trillion calculations in a blink of an eye i.e. about 1/10th of a second
- Microsoft releases Office 2007 suite
- Microsoft Windows Vista OS is introduced.
- Blu-ray and HD DVD increase in popularity
- Intel introduces Core 2 Quad
Four core processor made for dual processor servers and desktop computers
Larger number of cores allows for more energy-efficient performance
- Apple introduced iPhone and sells 270,000 phones in first 2 days
- Microsoft introduces Windows server 2008
Successor to Windows server 2003
- Online social networks continue to grow in popularity
MySpace, Facebook and Twitter are the most widely used
Combined social networking Websites total almost 1 billion users
- YouTube continues to gain users
- WiMAX goes live
Capability to access video, music, voice and video calls wherever and whenever desired
Average download speeds between 2-4 Mbps
Computers for Individual Use
- Computers can be shared by multiple users but can be used by only one person at a time.
Computers for Individual Use
- Six primary types of Personal Computers (PCs)
- Desktop computers
- Notebook computers
- Tablet Computers
- Handheld computers
- Smart Phones
Computers for Individual Use
Although PCs are used by individuals, they also can be connected together to create networks.
- The most common type of computer
- Sits on the desk or floor
- Performs a variety of tasks
- You see all around you in schools, home and offices
- Different design types
- Desktop Model
- Tower model
- Specialized single-user computers
- Optimized for science or graphics
- More powerful than a desktop
- Small portable computers
- Weighs between 3 and 8 pounds
- About 8 ½ by 11 inches
provide additional ports that enable the notebook computer to be connected to different devices or a network in the same manner as a desktop system
- Newest development in portable computers
- Input is through
a stylus or digital pen
- Run specialized versions of office products
- Some models have a fold-out keyboard
- Some models can be connected to a keyboard and a full-size monitor
- Palm computer
- Very small computers
- Personal Digital Assistants (PDA)
- Note taking or contact management
- Data can synchronize with a desktop
- Hybrid of cell phone and PDA
- Web surfing, e-mail access
Computers for Organizations
Some computers handle needs of many users at the same time.
These powerful systems are used by organizations such as businesses or schools
Commonly found at the heart of the organization network
- Network servers
- Mainframe computers
All other computers connect
Provides access to network resources
Multiple servers are called server farms
Often simply a powerful desktop: Google
Flexibility to different kinds of tasks
Users use the Internet as a means of connecting even if away from the offices.
Used in large organizations
Handle thousands of users
Users access through a terminal
Large and powerful systems
- Called midrange computers
- Power between mainframe and desktop
- Handle hundreds of users
- Used in smaller organizations
- Users access through a terminal
- The most powerful computers made
- Handle large and complex calculations
- Process trillions of operations per second
- Found in research organizations
Computers in Society
More impact than any other invention
- “Computers have changed our world” or “Computers have changed the way we do”
- Changed work and leisure activities
- Used by all demographic groups
Computers are important because:
- Provide information to users
- Information is critical to our society
- Managing information is difficult
Impact of Computers
Like the Impact of automobile
Benefits of Using Computers
- As varied as users
- For disabled person
- For a sales professional
- For a researcher
Computers at Home
- Many homes have multiple computers
- Most American homes have Internet
- Computers are used for
Computers in Society
Computers at home
Computers are used for
Computers in Education
Computer literacy required at all levels
More and more schools are adding computer technology to their curricula
Educators see computer technology as an essential learning requirement for all students, starting as early as preschool
Computers in Small Business
Makes businesses more profitable
Allows owners to manage and grow their companies
Computers in Industry
Computers in industry
- Computers are used to design products
- Assembly lines are automated
Computers in Government
Necessary to track data for population
- Police officers
- Tax calculation and collection
Governments were the first computer users
Computers in Health Care
- Revolutionized health care
- New treatments possible
- Scheduling of patients has improved
- Delivery of medicine is safer
- Developments in Microcomputers
From 1984 to 2008
- Computer for Individual Use
- Computer for Organizations
- Computers in Society