Academic Reading and Writing past paper

Academic Reading and Writing Past Paper/previous question paper

Academic Reading and Writing previous Final Paper 2021

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Question: 1

Head the comprehension passage and answer the questions given at the end. (10 Marks) Beliefs are easily the most enduring and distinctive aspects of maritime culture. Traditional beliefs, commonly called superstitions, are convictions that are usually related to causes and effects, and are often manifest in certain practices. Common examples include beliefs about good and bad luck. signs for predicting the weather, interpretations of supernatural happenings, and remedies for sickness and injury. Because maritime occupations often place workers in a highly unpredictable and hazardous environment, it is not surprising that fishermen hold many beliefs about fortune and misfortune. A primary function of such beliefs is to explain the unexplainable. Watermen can cite many actions that invite bad luck. These actions include uttering certain words while aboard a boat, taking certain objects aboard a boat, going out in a boat on a certain day, or painting boats certain colors. Among Florida fishermen, saying “alligator,” bringing aboard shells or black suitcases, and whistling are all considered bad luck while on a boat. Beliefs about actions that invite good luck appear to be fewer in number than those about bad luck. Beliefs about good luck include breaking a bottle of champagne or other liquid over the bow of a vessel when it is launched, participating in a blessing-of-the-fleet ceremony, placing a coin under the mast, carrying a lucky object when aboard, and stepping on or off the boat with the same foot. There are many beliefs about predicting the weather and the movement of fish. These beliefs are often linked to the detection of minute changes in the environment and reflect fishermen’s intimate contact with the natural environment. A Florida shirimp fisherman told a researcher that when shrimps’ legs are blood red you can expect a strong northeaster or strong southeaster. The direction of the wind is used to predict the best location for catching shrimp. Other signs for weather prediction include rings around the moon, the color of the sky at sunrise and sunset, and the color and texture of the sea. Sometimes beliefs are expressed in concise rhymes. An oysterman from Apalachicola, Florida, uses the rhyme, “East is the least, and west in the best” to recall that winds from the west generally produce conditions that are conducive good catches. Beliefs related to the supernatural-the existence of ghosts, phantom ships, burning ships, or sea monsters are also found in maritime communities. Many fishermen are reluctant to discuss the supernatural, so these beliefs are less conspicuous than those about luck and the weather. However, one net maker told a researcher about his encounter with a ghost ship. He saw a schooner, a ship that was prevalent in the nineteenth century, come in across the Gulf and pass through water that was far too shallow for a ship of its size. The ship then suddenly disappeared from sight. Commercial fishing is considered to be the most hazardous of all industrial occupations in the United States. Statistics show that fishermen are seven times more likely to die than workers in the next most dangerous occupation. Adhering to a system of beliefs most likely helps bring sense and order to a world int which natural disasters and misfortune are a part of daily life. Many fishermen also make a precarious living at best. Maritime beliefs contain the collective wisdom of generations and following these traditions may help fishermen catch more fish without taking unnecessary risks. 1) In line 3, the phrase manifest in certain practices most nearly means(1 Mark)

a. Obviously rehearsed.

b. Recorded in some religions.

e. Destined in certain circumstances.

d. Evident in particular activities. e. Decreed in unwavering terms.

2) According to the passage, fishermen are superstitious because (1 Mark)

a. They learn it from previous generations.

b. They believe in the supernatural.

c. fishing is a dangerous and unpredictable occupation. d. They are afraid of stormy weather.

e. fishing is a terrible way to make a living.

3) The author’s attitude toward fishermen’s beliefs about predicting the weather can best be characterized as (1 Mark)

a. Unqualified respect.

b. Veiled disbelief.

c. Tempered belief.

d. Absolute fascination.

e. Minimal enthusiasm.

4) In lines 35, precarious most nearly means (1 Mark)

a. Dangerous.

b. Steady.

c. Reduced.

d. Menger.

e. Uncertain.

5) What is the purpose of the statistic in lines 31-33? (2Marks)

6) What is the primary purpose of the passage? (2 Marks)

7) According to information in the passage, fishermen’s beliefs about the supernatural do not conform to the author’s definition of traditional beliefs, Why?

Question: 2

Create a reference list for the following sources using APA style (05 marks) 1. An article in the journal: Applied linguistics. It was written in 1985 by E Bialystock and M Sharwood-Smith. The title of the article is: Interlanguage is not a state of mind: An evaluation of the construct for second-language acquisition. It was published in volume 6 and it is from page 101 to page 117. 2. An article in a collection of articles edited by John Lyons. The title of the article is: the

study of language acquisition, and it was written by Robin Campbell and Roger Wales. Il

was on pages 242 to 260. The book of articles was called: new horizons in linguistics and

it was published in 1970 by Penguin in London. 3. An article by Robert Cooper called: What do we learn when we leam a language? It was published in 1970 in the journal TESOL Quarterly. It is on pages 303-314 in volume

4. 4. A very important book written in 1965 by W F Mackey. It was called: Language teaching analysis. It was published in London by Longman.

5. A book written by Noam Chomsky, who was professor of linguistics at MIT in Cambridge Massachusetts. It was written in 1965 and the title of the book is: Aspects of the theory of syntax. It was published by his own university.

Question 3

Read the paragraph and summarize it in 50 words. Include the most important points, using your own words. (5 marks)

As today’s bride and groom celebrate their wedditig, they have every excuse for being nervous. They exchange promises of lifelong fidelity and mutual support. However, all around them, they can see that many people do not and cannot keep these promises. Their own marriage has a one in three chance of divorce, if present tendencies continue. Traditional marriage is facing a crisis, at least in Britain. Not only are there more and more divorces, but the number of marriages is falling. Living together is more popular than before. The family is now no longer one man, one woman and their children. Instead, there are more and more families which include parents, half sisters and brothers, or even only one parent on her/his own. Although Britain is still conservative in its attitudes marriage compared with other countries such as the USA, Sweden and Denmark, the future will probably see many more people living together before marriage and more divorce. Interestingly, it is women rather than men who apply for divorce. Seven out of ten divorces are given to the wife. Also, one of the main reasons for divorce, chosen by ten times more women than men, is unreasonable or cruel behavior. Perhaps this means that women will tolerate less than they used to. Question 4

Paraphrase the following. (3×3-9 mark

I. Condenser microphones have been a part of society for a long time now. Because of their fantastic sound quality that has been little to no innovation in the mie industry for over 30 years now. The basics of condenser mic have remained the same which allow countless many new manufacturers to create great mic for low prices. One such example of this comes from China where the patent laws are quite loose. Now anyone can buy a decent condenser mic just under the price of a pizza.

2. Albert Einstein is one of the most influential scientific figures in recent history. His theory of black holes was just confirmed a few days ago when the first picture of a black hole was photographed. It is incredible how such an influential scientific figure once had to turn down a task much more significant than him, In 1952 Einstein was offered the role of the Israeli President since he had been considered as the best Jew in the world. The ironical part about this was that Albert Einstein wasn’t even Israeli, to begin with.

3. In the 1920s, an American academie, Elton Mayo, researched the effects of the physical environment on the productivity of workers. The result, known as the Hawthorne Studies, named after the electries company where it took place, showed that workers could be motivated to work harder by making small changes to the workplace, such as altering the lighting or the layout of a room.

Question 5

Write at least 200 words on “Da Computer games have a negative impact on school children?” (10 marks)

Question 6

Based on your reading of the novel “The Alchemist” by Paulo Coelho, discuss the Santiago’s character and his experiences in chasing a dream. (11 marks)

Good Luck!

Academic Reading and Writing previous question paper 2019

Question 1: Keeping to mind critical reading techniques, read the following passage and answer the question in academically, writing (15)

Unquestionably a literary life is for the most part an unhappy life, because, if you have genius, you must suffer the penalty of genius; and, if you have only talent, there are so many cares and worries incidental to the circumstances of men of letters, as to make life exceedingly miserable. Besides the pangs of composition, and the continuous disappointment which a true artist feels at his inability to reveal himself, there is the ever recurring difficulty of gaining the public car. Young writers are buoyed up by the hope and the belief that they have only to throw that poem at the world’s feet to get back in return the laurel-crown; that they have only to push that novel into print to be acknowledged at once as a new light in literature. You can never convince a young author that the editors of magazines and the publishers of books are a practical body of men, who are by no means frantically anxious about placing the best literature before the public. Nay, that for the most part they are mere brokers, who conduct their business on the hardest lines of a Profit and Loss account. But supposing your book fairly launches, its perils are only beginning. You have to run the gauntlet of the critics. To a young author, again, this seems to be as terrible an ordeal as passing down the files of Sioux or Comanche Indians, each one of whom is thirsting for your scalp. When you are a little older, you will find that criticism is not much more serious than the bye-play of clowns in a circus, when they beat around the ring the victim with bladders slung at the end of long poses. A time comes in the life of every author when he regards critics as comical rather than formidable, and goes his way unheeding. But there are sensitive souls that yield under the chastisement and, perhaps after suffering much silent torture, abandon the profession of the pen forever. Keats, perhaps, is the saddest example of a fine spirit hounded to death by savage criticism; because, whatever his biographers may aver, that furious attack of Clifford and Terry undoubtedly expedited his death. But no doubt there are hundreds who suffer keenly hostile and unserupulous criticism, and who have to bear that suffering in silence, because it is a cardinal principle in literature that the most unwise thing in the world for an author is to take public notice of criticism in the way of defending himself. Silence is the only safeguard, as it is the only dignified protest against insult and offence. -P.A. Shechan

Questions 1. Why is the Literary Life mostly an unhappy one? 2. What are the ambitions of a young author?

3. Are editors and publishers sympathetic to young authors? 4. What are some of the ordeals awaiting the young authors from the critics?

5. What attitude should an author adopt in the face of bitter critics?

Question 2: During a research process how do a researcher structure the context of his/her study? Discuss (10)

Question 3: What are methods/techniques typically used by skilled writers in paraphrasing and summarizing information cited in their academic papers.(10)

Question 4: Answer the following short questions.

1. In in-text citation, how a researcher should insert a long quotation in APA format. (2+2+1)

2. How a book by a single author should be referenced in bibliography by adopting an APA format.

3. Complete the sentence. If you are directly quoting from a work, you will need to include author name,…..and ……for the reference (year, page, publisher, book title).

Question 5: What is a Literature Review? Discuss the ways and techniques literature review chapter.

to develop a (10)

Academic Reading and Writing previous question paper 2 2019

Question 1: Read the following passage and paraphrase it by using academic writing techniques.(10)

Ecofeminism brings together the elements of the feminist and the green movement, while at the same time offering a challenge to the both. The term Ecofeminism was first coined by the French Feminist Francoise d’Eanboune in her book Le féminisme ou la mort in 1974. It takes from the green movement a concern about the impact of human activities on the nonhuman. world and from feminism the view of humanity as gendered in ways that subordinate, exploit and oppress women. Karen Warren defines Ecofeminism her essay as:

“Ecological feminism” is the n is the name of a variety of different feminist perspectives the nature of the connections between the domination “Ecological feminist philosophy” ” is the the name of a diversity of philosophical approaches to the variety of different connections between feminism and the environment. These different perspectives reflect not only different feminist perspectives (c.g., liberal, traditional Marxist, radical, and socialist feminism); they also reflect different understandings of the nature, and solution to, pressing environmental problems of women (and other oppressed humans) and the domination of nature.

Ecofeminist activities grew during the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s among women from the antinuclear, environmental and lesbian feminist movement. Greta Gaard and Patrick D. Murphy further characterize ecofeminism as “based not only on the recognition of connections between the exploitation of nature and the oppression of women across patriarchal societies” but also “on the recognition that these two forms of domination are bound up with class exploitation, racism, colonialism, and neocolonialism”. Even though there are variety of regional, ethnical and cultural ecofeminism exist the primary concern remain the same that the subjugation of women and nature are linked historically, materially, culturally or conceptually

Question 2: write a short note on Webbing and cubing as a pre-writing technique.(5)

Academic Reading and Writing previous question paper  1 2019

Question 1:

Write briefly the difference of skimming from scanning(05)

Question 2:

What are the different strategies used in critical Reading? Explain any one of them (10)

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