Bertrand defined it as “system of social relationship for meeting various felt human needs”
MacIver and page consider it “an established form of conditions or procedure.”
In general, we may infer that social institution is an established machinery to satisfy human needs.
Types of Institutions
Horton & Hunt: “family is a kinship grouping which provides for the rearing of children and for certain after bond needs.”
Structure of the family The following relationships exist in a simple family when there are children with parents:
1. Husband & Wife 2. Father & son
- Father & Daughter 4. Mother & Son
- Mother & Daughter 6. Brother & brother
- Sister & sister 8. Brother & sister
These bonds of relationship create structure of the family. These members compose a family
Types of family
Nuclear Family: This family consists of married couple and their unmarred children living together. Husband & wife make core in this family. Radcliff Brown called it elementary family.
Consanguine Family: this family is founded upon blood relationship of a large number of kin relationships. This family is extended to blood relations together with their mates & children. It is the main bar of kinship. In Pakistani society unmarried brother and sister live together with parents. It means uncle and aunt also live together within the nuclear family. Practically it is found today in Pakistani society where father is strongly dominant.
Extended Family: It consists of three generations. Grandfather, father and son living within the family are a typical extended family. The three kinds are:
a. Extended Family: Husband & wife and their either of the married children living together.
- Patrilineal Extended Family: parents + their sons + son’s wives and their children living together.
- Matrilineal extended family: Parents + their daughters + daughter’s husband + their children living together. In Pakistani society they are usually called “ghar jawai”
- Matrilocal Family: Mother + her children without husband or father it is also called maternal family or simply mother child unit. In Pakistani society there is no such customary family found but in odd circumstance when father dies or divorces his wife or gets into another marriage and lives with her. In this case the mother does not remarry but lives with her children only.
Stem Family: Parents + one child + his spouse + his / her children. In Pakistani society this family is found from place to place. The parents marry all their children and give them separate living and continue to live with one married son or daughter usually the youngest one.
Single parent family: Where husband or wife are looking after their children.
Blended Family: Where husband or wife contracts another marriage. For instance, husband having two wives (polygamous wives)
Patrilocal Family: Married Couple live with the husband’s family
Horton & Hunt “Marriage is a culturally approved social relationships for sexual relationship and child bearing.”
Marriage may be either monogamous (only one mate at a time) or polygamous (more than one wives). Polygamous has two types:
Polyandry: In this type woman is allowed to have more than one husband.
Polygyny (Polygamy): In this type, husband contracts marriage with more than one wife.
Functions of Family as an institutions
Following are the functions of family institution.
Socialization: The child learns socialization from the parents. The realizations of ‘self’ among children also takes place through their interaction in the family.
Care for old dependents: Is also one of the man duties of family both in normal & abnormal circumstances.
An outlet for sex: It regulates the sexual behaviours on standardized patterns for the married adults.
Selection of Mates: is also done by family. The ultimate aim of this is to provide happy life to each family member. Divorces in most of cases are decided by the family.
To inculcate love & Affection among Family Members: is one of the most distinguished functions of family.
Economic Unit: The family is responsible for the preparation of budget and its implementation. The members of family get food; shelter, clothing etc. through this unit.
Rules of Descendants and Right of property: Family institution determines line of descendants and the right of property among the members of family. These norms are given a legal shape.
Education: Formal and informal, religious or secular education of children is in face the responsibility of the family.
Political: During election, members of the family are united for a single candidate under the leadership of their family head.
Recreation: The arrangements of recreational and amusement activities are also function of the family.
Social Control: Family enhances social control.
Religion: Family teachers the members about right and wrong ideas for family, community, country and humanity. It helps in character making.
Health coverage to children: It is also the duty of family institution to look after health of every member of the family.
Religion as an institution in Pakistan
What is religion? Pioneer sociologist Émile Durkheim described it with the ethereal statement that it consists of “things that surpass the limits of our knowledge” (1915). He went on to elaborate: Religion is “a unified system of beliefs and practices relative to sacred things, that is to say set apart and forbidden, beliefs and practices which unite into one single moral community, called a church, all those who adhere to them” (1915). Some people associate religion with places of worship (a synagogue or church), others with a practice (confession or meditation), and still others with a concept that guides their daily lives (like dharma or sin). All these people can agree that religion is a system of beliefs, values, and practices concerning what a person holds sacred or considers to be spiritually significant.
Functions of Religion
- Religion is an agent of socialization.
- Religion promotes welfare.
- Religion is play social control.
- Religion is influences economy.
- Religion provides mental peace
- Religion gives man comfort, strength and hope in times of crisis and despair.
Education as a social institution
Education Definition • “A formal process of knowledge in which some people consciously teach while adopt others social role of learner”.
- “Education refers to the contributions of the school to the development and maintenance of education at the different levels of society, i.e. School, college and universities.”
Functions of Education
- Modifying the past behavior by different agencies.
- Education aims at the all round development of child physical, mental, social and spiritual.
- Help for bright future of child.
- Development of personality and recognized in society.
Economic Definition “A system of role and status responsible for production and distribution and consumption of goods and resources”.
Functions of Economic
- They responsible what good to produce or not (depend the choice of customer).
- They decide the labor and capital and method of production.
- Economic systems also function to decide on the particular technique to used in production.
- The decides what method to factor combination to be employed in order to maximize the use of science resources by minimize cost & increasing productivity.
- Non – Traditional Function
- Economic system must insure economic growth.
- Society must also ensure full employment.
Politics as an institution
Politics “The social institution that is founded on a recognized set of production for implementing and achieving society’s goods”.
Functions of Political Socialization
- The process by which you acquire political attitudes and develop patterns of political behavior is known as political socialization.
- It encouraged to accept a society basic political values and its particular methods for decision making.
Mass Media as an Institution
Mass Media Definition
- It is a message created by a person or a group of people sent through a transmitting device (a medium) to a large audience or market.
- Mass media is communication that reaches and influences a large number of people.
Types of Mass Media
- Print Media
- News paper
- Audio-video Media 1) Television 2) Internet 3. Audio Media 1)Radio
Functions of Mass media
- To Inform: Information is most important function the power of mass media to inform is almost credible. People read newspaper to know about what, when, where, who, why and How the things are happening pertaining to personalities or institutions. It brings about greater awareness among the masses about men and materials.
- To Educate: The mass media educates people by giving information about food, health, housing, sanitation, employment, agriculture, industry, environment, science, technology, modernization etc. Radio is very useful source of information and education both in urban and rural areas in developing countries. the print media predominant source of education Ex: Newspaper, Journals etc.
- To Entertain: Mass media also entertains people. Film, television, radio are increasingly subjected to commercialization via entertainment. Television is nation’s number one entertainment medium. But film & radio are not far behind.